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Mana päritolu

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Mana päritolu

PostitusPostitas KEK 14:54 16. Jaan 2010

Ärkasin üles, istusin arvuti taha ja tekkis huvi sõna Mana päritolu vastu.
Sõna mida täiesti igapäevaselt kohati kasutame.
Veider kohe mõelda, et polnud kunagi huvi tundnud, mis sõna see selline on.

Tahtsin leitut jagada...



Wikipedia kirjutas:Mana is both a word in indigenous languages of the South Pacific and more recently a New Zealand English word. See Māori influence on New Zealand English. Translating the indigenous word encounters difficulty as it reflects a non-Western view of reality. To quote the New Zealand Ministry of Justice "Mana and tapu are concepts which have both been attributed single - worded definitions by contemporary writers. As concepts, especially Maori concepts they can not easily be translated in to a single English definition . Both mana and tapu take on a whole range of related meanings depending on their association and the context in which they are being used."

In contemporary New Zealand English, the word Mana, taken from the Maori, refers to a person or organization of people of great personal prestige and character. Sir Edmund Hillary, whose portrait is on the New Zealand $5 bill, is considered to have great mana both because of his accomplishments, but also because of the humble nature of how he gave his life to service. Perceived egotism can diminish mana as it is used in NZ English because New Zealand culture tends to shun displays of self aggrandisement (see Tall poppy syndrome). In English a New Zealander would say "Sir Ed has a lot of mana" even though the man is deceased. Also, a New Zealander would say "Sir Ed brought a lot of mana to the Sir Edmund Hillary Outdoor Pursuit Centre" This means the centre (the OPC) has mana because of the association it has with a man of great mana. However if the OPC did something that was not respected by New Zealanders, it could lose that mana in the eyes of New Zealanders.

Mana as an indigenous word may be the concept of an impersonal force or quality that resides in people, animals, and inanimate objects. The concept is common to many Oceanic languages, including Melanesian, Polynesian, and Micronesian.

In anthropological discourse, mana as a generalized concept has attained a significant amount of interest, often understood as a precursor to formal religion. It has commonly been interpreted as "the stuff of which magic is formed", as well as the substance of which souls are made.

Modern fantasy fiction and computer and role-playing games have adopted mana as a term for magic points—an expendable resource out of which magic users form their magical spells.



Mana in Polynesian culture

In Polynesian culture (for example, Hawaiian and Māori), mana is a spiritual quality considered to have supernatural origin – a sacred impersonal force existing in the universe. Therefore to have mana is to have influence and authority, and efficacy – the power to perform in a given situation. This essential quality of mana is not limited to persons – peoples, governments, places and inanimate objects can possess mana. In Hawaiian, mana loa means "great power". There are two ways to obtain mana: through birth and through warfare. People or objects that possess mana are accorded "respect"; because their possession of mana gives them "authority", "power", and "prestige". In Māori, a tribe that has mana whenua is considered to have demonstrated their authority over a given piece of land or territory. The word’s meaning is complex because mana is a basic foundation of the Polynesian worldview.
[edit] Essential aspects to a Māori person's mana

* mana tangata, authority derived from whakapapa connections, and
* mana huaanga, defined as "authority derived from having a wealth of resources to gift to others to bind them into reciprocal obligations".

whakapapa - Whakapapa is defined as the "genealogical descent of all living things from the gods to the present time (Barlow, 1994, p. 173)." Since all living things including rocks and mountains are believed to possess whakapapa, it is further defined as "a basis for the organisation of knowledge in the respect of the creation and development of all things (Barlow, 1994, p. 173)."

Hence, whakapapa also implies a deep connection to land and the roots of one’s ancestry. In order to trace one’s whakapapa it is essential to identify the location where one’s ancestral heritage began; "you can’t trace it back any further (Russell, 2004)." "Whakapapa links all people back to the land and sea and sky and outer universe, therefore, the obligations of whanaungatanga extend to the physical world and all being in it (Glover, 2002, p. 14)."




Mana in Melanesian culture

Melanesian mana is thought to be a sacred impersonal force existing in the universe. Mana can be in people, animals, plants and objects. Similar to the idea of efficacy, or sometimes better known as luck, the Melanesians thought all success was traced back to mana. One could acquire or manipulate this luck in different ways (for example through magic). Certain objects that have mana can change a person’s luck.

Examples of such objects would be charms or amulets. For instance if a very prosperous hunter used a charm that had mana and he gave it to another person then people believed that the prosperous hunter’s luck would transfer to the next holder of the charm.


Wikipedia kirjutab veel... kirjutas:Universal archetype

A concept analogous to mana in various other cultures has been the power of magic. However, it was not the only principle, and others included the concept of sympathetic magic and of seeking the intervention of a specific supernatural being, whether deity, saint or deceased ancestor.

The magic of mana was embedded into all talismans and fetishes, whether devoted to ancient Gods, Roman Catholic saint relics, the spirits of the ancestors or the underlying element that makes up the universe and all life within it.


Similar cultural concepts

The concept of a life-energy inherent in all living beings seems to be a fairly universal archetype, and appears in numerous ancient religions and systems of metaphysics.

Analogies to mana in other societies include:

* Welsh mythology : awen
* Iranian mythology : asha
* Roman mythology : numen
* Anishinaabe traditional beliefs : manitou
* Australian Aboriginal mythology : maban
* Egyptian mythology : ka
* Finnish mythology : Väki
* Greek mythology : ichor
* Inuit mythology : inua, sila
* Iroquois mythology : orenda
* Leni Lenape mythology : manetuwak
* Aztec religion : teotl
* Norse mythology : seid
* Salish-Kootenai mythology : sumesh
* Yoruba mythology : ashe
* Yoga : prana, chakra
* Basque mythology : Adur

Also related are the philosophical concepts of:

* Chinese philosophy : qi (or chi), Tao
* Japanese philosophy : kami, ki, rei; Ryukyuan mabui
* European alchemy and philosophy : aether, (or ether), quintessence
* Hindu philosophy : prana
* Tibetan Buddhism & Bön : Loong or lung.
* Vitalism : Élan vital


Mana in fantasy

Fantasy writer Larry Niven in his 1969 short story Not Long Before the End described mana as a natural resource which is used or channeled by wizards to cast magic spells. He expanded on this idea in other works, notably his 1978 novella The Magic Goes Away. Mana is a limited resource in Niven's work, a fact which eventually will lead to the end of all magic in his antediluvian fantasy setting when all mana is depleted.

Many subsequent fantasy settings (role-playing games in particular) have followed Niven in his use of mana.
KEK
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Re: Mana päritolu

PostitusPostitas arpeau 16:47 16. Jaan 2010

Finnish mythology : Väki

Ehk siis, meie keeles - "vägi"!
Arpeau
arpeau
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Re: Mana päritolu

PostitusPostitas KEK 22:05 16. Jaan 2010

arpeau kirjutas:Finnish mythology : Väki

Ehk siis, meie keeles - "vägi"!


Jep, just nii.

vägi

elu vägi, võlu vägi,
l33tidele wägi või midagi...


Vägi
Allikas: Vikipeedia

Vägi on loodususundeis kõike täitev ja ergastav ebaisikuline jõud.

Väe mõiste võib tuleneda animatistlikust ürgusundist. Selles tähenduses on "vägi" eesti keeles uurali keelekihistusse kuuluv sõna.

Vägi võib teatud objektis ka isikustuda, kusjuures väe tugevus sõltub toimuva või toimuvas osaleja tähtsusest.

Jumalausundites on vägi ehk energia jumala atribuut.
KEK
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Re: Mana päritolu

PostitusPostitas Kristjan Oad 15:51 17. Jaan 2010

Kas ikka adume, et Star Wars on pesueht läänemeresoome mütoloogia põhine fantaasia?

Olgu Vägi sinuga...


8-)

Lmsm maailmapildis on muidu sõnal "mana" ka omaette tähendus, ent meile teadaoleva põhjal üsna hägune ja segane. Vrdl "manala". Etümoloogiline teatmik - http://www.eki.ee/cgi-bin/raun.cgi?sona=mana - meie hetkel ainuke, kuigi hädine aseaine etümoloogilisele sõnaraamatule, väidab seost keskalamsaksa sõnaga "manen", samas sama tüve esinemine ka soome ja karjala keeles õõnestab seda orjalikku ühendamist. Keskalamsaksa mõjude leidmisse on see teatmik üldse väga kiindunud, vahel pakub välja kaunis mm leidlikke seoseid.

Igasugu kaasamõtlejad on arvanud igasugu asju, surmajumala nimeni välja, ent see on sama hea speakulatsioon kui iga teine.
Kristjan Oad
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Re: Mana päritolu

PostitusPostitas Die 0:57 22. Apr 2010

Seesama VÄGI on üks sõna, mille inglise keelde tõlkimisega olen mina alati kurjamoodi vaeva näinud. Ja no ei ole säärast sõna neil, mis sama tähenduse edasi annaks. Ja kui kirjanduslikus tekstis mana kirjutada, siis paraku hakkab enamus meeriklasi ja muid rahvaid täringuviskamise või pigem arvutimängude mana pool'i peale mõtlema...

Vägev sõna see vägi, pole midagi öelda ;)
Kui oled kaelani sitas, ära pead longu lase (Saksa vanasõna)
Die
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